Spring DefaultKeyGenerator gotcha

To speed things up I had applied the excellent @Cacheable annotation to a service method in our application (don’t miss the excellent performance analysis here, btw). However I had not paid too much attention to the parameters going into the cache key. I would have expected something like concatinated toString() or something similar, however the default is to use the hashCode() of each parameter and create another (32-bit) hash code. Obviously this can easily generate collisions as we shall soon see.

The service method in my service class took two parameters, a long and an int:

getData(long a, int b)

The test failed intermittently with an assertion error that the data returned was wrong, which baffled me, until I had a look at the DefaultKeyGenerator source code:

public Object generate(Object target, Method method, Object... params) {
	if (params.length == 1) {
		return (params[0] == null ? NULL_PARAM_KEY : params[0]);
	if (params.length == 0) {
		return NO_PARAM_KEY;
	int hashCode = 17;
	for (Object object : params) {
		hashCode = 31 * hashCode + (object == null ? NULL_PARAM_KEY : object.hashCode());
	return Integer.valueOf(hashCode);

Truly simple input can be used to expose the problem:

System.out.println(new DefaultKeyGenerator().generate(null, null, 1, 0)); // 16368
System.out.println(new DefaultKeyGenerator().generate(null, null, 0, 31)); // 16368

Looking at the documentation of DefaultKeyGenerator, there is a mention of using the arguments’s hash codes, however I feel the risks should be better communicated. To not just sound like a grumpy old fart, I notified the Spring team.

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